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Teaching Tools in Plant Biology

Plant-Water Relations 1: Uptake and Transport”  is the latest article in Teaching Tools in Plant Biology, and first of the in-depth series on the topic of Plant Physiology. It was written by me (Mary Williams), Mel Oliver of the USDA-ARS and Steve Pallardy of the University of Missouri.  

This topic is a cornerstone of plant physiology, and also holds special significance today as we are seeing an increase in drought-induced plant death that is impacting forests worldwide. As Dixon and Joly pointed out in 1895, water movement in plants can be compared “to the action of a porous vessel drawing up a column of liquid to supply the evaporation loss at its surface”. Plants are much more complicated than clay pots on sticks, and the results of millionsof years of evolutionary selection underpin every step of the water-flow process. From the far ends of the roots to the highly sensitive guard cells, living plant cells sense and respond to water, allowing them to maximize CO2 uptake while minimizing dehydration injury and damage to their vulnerable conducting tissues. The rapid pace of climate change may be exceeding the ability of long-lived plants to adapt, leading to their hydraulic failure and death.  

This Teaching Tool introduces plant-water relations through three entry points: the “first principles” that underscore the physiology of plants, the historical unfolding of our understanding, and the evolutionary origins of water conducting systems. Particular emphasis is placed on the roles of aquaporins in regulating hydraulic conductance, the structure and function of xylem in the efficiency and safety of the vascular system, and the influences of root and leaf anatomy on water transport. Students can test their understanding by examining Scholander and Tyree’s classic studies of mangroves, grapevines and maple trees, which face unusual challenges in water uptake and transport.  

We encourage instructors to engage students inside and outside the classroom with questions for inquiry and discussion, such as those found in the Teaching Guide. For further inquiry, the Recommended Reading list includes current research and review articles as well as classic papers, all hyperlinked in the Lecture Notes and slides. If the time you have to teach this topic is very limited, the Abridged24 slide set summarizes the main points covered.

Look for Part 2, “How Plants Manage Water Deficit and Why It Matters” in early May 2014.

Further resources:

Browse the full list of Teaching Tools topics

Keep up with the Teaching Tools blog, “Hooks and Hot Topics for Plant Biology Education

Join the conversation on Facebook and Twitter


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Climate Science Day: Dr. Moehs Goes to Washington

In 1962, when I was born, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere stood at 316 parts per million (ppm). Now nearly 52 years later, the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere has reached 400 ppm. I can’t see it, taste it or feel it but through the power of science I know it is there and still steadily rising. The evidence is unequivocal that this increase is due to the burning of fossil fuels by humans. It is strange to think that because of this vast uncontrolled experiment that humans are conducting with the earth’s atmosphere the world into which I was born, in a certain sense, no longer exists.

Annual Climate Science Day: Scientific Thought Leaders Unite
To raise awareness among US  politicians and policy-makers about the issue of climate change and the impacts of unrestricted carbon dioxide emissions, 14 scientific societies have joined forces to hold an annual Climate Science Day on Capitol Hill in Washington DC. Now in its 4th year, about 40 scientists fanned out across Capitol Hill on January 29th 2014 to meet lawmakers and their staffs to discuss climate science and to offer themselves as resources about the science of climate change. This year I had the privilege of representing the American Society of Plant Biologists (ASPB) on Climate Science Day.

Preparation is Key
Since this was my first time taking part in this event, I arrived at the training session, held at the offices of the American Geophysical Union on January 28th, the day before our meetings on Capitol Hill, with anticipation. There I quickly met my partners for the following day’s meetings: Dr. Peter Guttorp, Professor of Statistics at the University of Washington and member of the Nobel Prize-winning IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), who was participating in his 3rd Climate Science Day, and Dr. Tyrone Spady, science policy expert with the ASPB in Washington and Kaitlin Chell, also a local expert with the ASPB.

During the afternoon’s training, the 40 scientists introduced each other and separated into geographically based teams, heard descriptions from local experts about the process of meeting politicians and their staffs and were treated to a lecture about climate change by Dr. Richard Alley of the Department of Geosciences of Penn State University. Dr. Alley’s perspective was particularly valuable because of his engaging communication style and the knowledge he has gained from frequent appearances on Capitol Hill testifying about climate change before congressional hearings.

During the lecture he described atmospheric physics research done by the Air Force during the course of developing heat seeking missile technology in the 1950s. He concluded that the science of climate change is as unequivocal as the science underpinning heat seeking missile technology and that one cannot deny one without denying the other.

Charles “Max” Moehs discusses climate change with Sen. Maria Cantwell (WA)

Charles “Max” Moehs discusses climate change with Sen. Maria Cantwell (WA).

On Capitol Hill: Communicating a Sense of Urgency

The following day, Peter, Tyrone, Kaitlin and I shuttled between the Senate and House side of the Capitol on a cold sunny day. We focused on the Washington State delegation since Peter and I both live in Seattle. We met with Senators Patty Murray and Maria Cantwell during their weekly constituent coffees as well as with staff members of many of Washington State’s congressional delegation from both Democratic and Republican parties. These meetings were very useful for introducing ourselves and engaging these policy-makers on an issue that American society will ultimately have to grapple with.

At the end of the day, what stood out for me was the striking contrast between the urgency of Dr. Alley’s presentation the preceding day and the relative lack of urgency on Capitol Hill where climate change may be regarded as one among many issues that politicians face.

It is clear that many people have not yet grasped the reason for this urgency-delay now makes confronting climate change and carbon emissions that much harder in the future. This has been elegantly demonstrated by Dr. John Sterman of MIT in a series of papers highlighting the fact that many people have difficulty appreciating the concept of stocks and flows (Sterman and Sweeney 2007; Sterman 2008) (Sterman 2011). If one likens the amount (stock) of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to the amount of water in a bathtub, then the bathtub will keep filling and eventually overflow as long as the water flowing in is greater than the water flowing out.

Even if the drain is open the level in the tub will only stabilize if the water flowing into the tub is the same as the water draining out. This means that carbon dioxide emissions have to be reduced to a level equivalent to the uptake of carbon dioxide by available carbon sinks just to stabilize carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Merely reducing emissions somewhat but at a level greater than the carbon sinks guarantees a continuing increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Increasing Awareness
Because increased awareness of these facts is part of what is required for US society and politicians to ultimately face the challenge of climate change, it is heartening to see the development of intuitive tools such as those developed by Climate Interactive (http://climateinteractive.org/) to simulate possible carbon emissions trajectories and enable improved risk communication. Finally, Richard Alley concluded his lecture to us Climate Science Day participants by mentioning that he is now teaching a MOOC (massive open online course) on this topic. Given the enthusiasm and knowledge with which he approaches his topic, his students are in for an eye-opening experience!

  • Sterman, J. D. (2008). “Risk communication on climate: mental models and mass balance.” Science 322(5901): 532-533.
  • Sterman, J. D. (2011). “Communicating climate change risks in a skeptical world.” Climatic Change 108(4): 811-826.
  • Sterman, J. D. and L. B. Sweeney (2007). “Understanding public complacency about climate change: Adults’ mental models of climate change violate conservation of matter.” Climatic Change 80(3-4): 213-238.



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The Perks of Being a Scientist: Attending Plant Biology Meetings

I attended my first Plant Biology Meeting as a graduate student– and I was in awe. So many people, and I didn’t know a soul. It was scary and I thought I would drown in anonymity. And I was completely overwhelmed by the sheer amount of scientific presentations. That changed very quickly though when my PI introduced me his fellow scientists. The more I went, the more people I got to know. As my knowledge increased, so did my enjoyment of the presentations.

Susanne Hoffmann-Benning

Dr. Susanne Hoffmann-Benning is an Assistant Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at Michigan State University and is a long-time ASPB member.

And I was hooked.

After my son was born, my options of attending meetings dwindled. Both, my husband and I work with plants and bringing a child to a meeting didn’t seem like a great idea. But ASPB was very family friendly, so my husband, my son (then 4 years old) and I attended the ASPB meeting in Portland, OR. Those that were there may remember how when one of the speakers walked to the stage, a little voice proudly piped up: “that’s my daddy!”

Now I am back at the Plant Biology meeting and there is still more I enjoy.

I enjoy listening to cutting-edge research and “hot topics” in fields other than the one I work in. Since they vary from year to year, it is never boring. Never mind that sometimes two interesting talks are at the exact same time or the interest is so large, that the rooms overflow – for a presenter it is great to see all that interest.

Of course, I also love to present. As I prepared for my very first mini-symposium talk as a postdoc, I received an email requesting lettering in the slides large enough so it could be seen in the back of a room that held 350 people. I panicked! 350 people!!! And yes, the room was packed. Two years ago, when I actually chaired a minisymposium, I found out that even full professors who are established scientists and experienced speakers are nervous before their presentation…

Poster Sessions
They are huge! But they are a great opportunity for postdocs and students to present their data and get great feedback from fellow attendees. Every year, I have students, sometimes even undergraduates, present; and every year, they are totally giddy and full of ideas after their poster sessions. They see that their research matters!

The variety of workshops is just amazing. I send my students to workshops on paper or grant writing, on teaching or job perspectives. I always bring my female students to the women in science luncheon, because they are inspiring and fun. And because they show that while it may not be easy, it is possible. The guys, though, tend to refuse my offer!

It is surprisingly easy to meet people at Plant Biology meetings. Some are new acquaintances; some are old friends I haven’t seen in years. Science is the glue that brings us back together. I introduce my students to these friends and over dinner – not only is it good for their future to practice networking, they realize, when we are not tense about deadlines, classes or presentations, we can actually be fun!

I remember dancing until they kicked us out when we were graduate students!

Portland, OR was just voted best US city! (msn.com 2/1/2014)

Why do I keep coming back?

This was the first meeting I ever attended, the one where I developed into a scientist, the one where I can always get candid feedback on my research, and the one where I made friends–some for a lifetime! Most importantly, it’s a great opportunity to show my students that science is inspiring and fun!

Be part of something special. Register and join us for Plant Biology 2014 in Portland, Oregon in July 2014.


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2014 Plant Science Grant and Fellowship Opportunities

A handy list of plant science grant and fellowship opportunities with deadlines in early 2014. Please leave a comment if you know of other opportunities we should promote.

ASPB Travel Grant Program for Plant Biology 2014

ASPB is offering up to 80 $575 grants for students, postdocs, and faculty beginning their careers to attend the Plant Biology 2014 Annual Meeting in Portland, Oregon. The travel awards will also come with a partial registration waiver. Undergraduate students and underrepresented minorities are especially encouraged to apply.

Deadline for receipt of applications: January 13, 2014
Apply online: http://travelgrants.aspb.org/

Women’s Young Investigator Travel Awards

ASPB offers seven $1,000 Women’s Young Investigator Travel Awards (WYITA) to attend Plant Biology 2014 in Portland, Oregon. The awards are to female ASPB members within their first 5 years as faculty-level, independent plant science investigators.

Deadline for receipt of applications: January 13, 2014
Apply online:  http://wyita.aspb.org/

The ASPB/AAAS Mass Media Fellowship

Are you interested in science writing? Do you want to help people understand complex scientific issues? ASPB/AAAS Mass Media Science & Engineering Fellows learn how to increase public understanding of science and technology. Fellows in the 10-week 2014 summer program will work as reporters, researchers, and production assistants in mass media organizations nationwide.

Deadline for receipt of applications: January 15, 2014
Apply online: http://www.aaas.org/programs/education/MassMedia/

Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Program

The SURF program is designed to support promising undergraduate students so they can conduct meaningful research in plant biology during the early part of their college careers. Ideally, students will conduct SURF-funded research the summer following their second year of undergraduate study. Exceptionally well-prepared first- and third-year students who provide evidence of a strong commitment to plant biology will also be considered.

Deadline for receipt of applications: February 15, 2014
Apply online: http://surf.aspb.org/



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Infographic: Our Future is Rooted in Plant Science

Our future is rooted in plant science

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Plant Science Decadal Vision Rolls out at AAAS

On December 3rd, 2013, the National Plant Science Council partnered with the American Chemical Society; the Alliance of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Science Societies; and the American Society of Plant Biologists (ASPB) to co-host a briefing on the report Unleashing a Decade of Innovation in Plant Science: A Vision for 2015-2025. The briefing was also supported by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).

The event took place at the AAAS headquarters in Washington, DC,  featuring David Stern of the Boyce Thompson Institute, Toni Kutchan of the Danforth Plant Science Center, and Pat Schnable of Iowa State University and was moderated by Sally MacKenzie of University of Nebraska-Lincoln, all long-standing members of ASPB.

Among the 65 attendees were Jane Silverthorne (National Science Foundation [NSF]), Sharlene Weatherwax (Department of Energy [DOE]), and the retired head of NSF’s Directorate for Biological Sciences Mary Clutter. A host of staff from United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), the State Department, and other federal agencies; representatives from scientific and professional organizations; researchers; and others also participated in the event.

The report, also known as the Decadal Vision, was developed to articulate the monumental advances in plant science research and technological innovation that will be required to address the increasingly pressing demands of burgeoning global population growth, climate change, and diminishing natural resources. The Decadal Vision is a community-driven report that articulates a path toward those monumental advances. The report describes a ten-year research agenda for plant science and its impacts on food, fuel, feed, fiber, pharmaceuticals, and American competitiveness.

The meat of the program started with Stern’s presentation. He gave an overview of the process by which the community came together to develop the Decadal Vision, which it did with the support of the NSF, DOE, USDA, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and ASPB,. He described the report’s impetus, as well as the five interwoven goals that emerged from the effort: 1) increase the ability to predict plant traits from plant genomes in diverse environments; 2) assemble plant traits in differ ways to solve problems; 3) discover, catalog, and utilize plant-derived chemicals; 4) enhance the ability to find answers in a torrent of data; and 5) create a T-training environment for plant science doctoral students. (See accompanying infographic for more information.)

Stern was followed by Kutchan, who spoke about plant chemistry. Her talk emphasized the many critical plant-derived or inspired compounds and products on which our lives depend. Whether it is plant-derived pharmaceuticals or cellulosic fibers, according to Kutchan, plant chemistry has and will continue to play an essential role in our lives. She also highlighted that of the 400,000 species of flowering plants, 30 provide for 95% of our needs with regard to food and energy. And although more than 20,000 have been used medicinally, we are only beginning to scratch the surface. Kutchan’s talk also emphasized the current rapid extinction of plant and animal species and offered a powerful argument as to the functional importance of preserving biodiversity and the value of learning more about the chemistry of plants.

Schnable’s presentation then covered why we need to devote more resources to understanding the relationship between plant traits and plant genomes in diverse environments and the attendant “Big Data” challenges. To illustrate, he spoke about his USDA-supported work to design and build a phenotyping robot. For Schnable, the utilization or robotics has dramatically enhanced his ability to collect data. The increasing utilization of automated phenotyping approaches coupled with the plummeting cost and increasing speed of sequencing and genotyping technologies have created a “Perfect Storm” of data generation.  To address the societal changes related to climate change, global food security, diminishing natural resources, and the growth of the human population, the Decadal Vision argues for the development of new capabilities of curation, data-sharing, and analysis.

Along with the need to address these issues using multidisciplinary approaches also will come the need to reengineer the training of plant science doctoral students argued MacKenzie. To tackle the challenges of the Decadal Vision will require subsequent generations of trainees to be facile in data and Internet-driven research, statistical analysis, visualization, and online collaboration. She also argued that training experiences of plant scientists must prepare them for multiple career paths as only one in six Ph.D.s will become academic faculty. The remaining trainees, she said, will play critical roles in other aspects of the scientific enterprise from working to help policy makers understand the importance of plant science to working in industry.

A true measure of the immediate success of the briefing, almost the entire audience stayed through all of the presentations as well as the Q&A session that followed. Further, the audience was actively engaged. They asked questions ranging from the role and placement of the microbiome within the context of the Decadal Vision to the engagement of citizen scientists as a means to reach urbanites regarding the value of plant science.

The briefing at AAAS was the first in a series of events aimed at introducing the Decadal Vision to funding agencies, the science policy advocacy community, and federal policymakers. The next event will specifically target Members of Congress and their aides. A video of the event can be viewed on the ASPB Youtube channel and press coverage can be accessed via the AgriPulse website.




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This year’s meeting will be great! We’ll have the best science, an outstanding locale, plus new opportunities for connecting at every level.

1. Award-winning science will be featured in symposia and mini-symposia.

This year, top scientists in the US (ASPB) will be joined by others from Canada (CSPB) and beyond, to speak in major and mini-symposia on high-priority topics. Among these are plant responses to abiotic stresses, biosynthesis of secondary products, and “firsts in plants.” Also, special-award symposia and addresses will include newly emerging roles of chloroplasts and mitochondria, insights into proteins affecting grain development, and a session on plant signaling.

2. The grand challenge of “feeding the 9 billion” will be targeted by a multi-session, joint symposium from the editors of Plant Physiology and Plant Cell.

This initiative will focus on the global food challenge, from economics to nutrition, with world-renown speakers who will also address relevant aspects of GMO literacy, human disease, mineral nutrition, extreme environments, and others. A central goal is to broaden our understanding of the full context involved in feeding the 9 billion.

3. Students and postdocs with hot findings will be highlighted in multiple, new mini-symposia.

The purpose is to enhance opportunities for presentations of hot new developments from students and post-docs, especially as oral presentations where they can initiate open discussions with a national and international audience of interested colleagues.

4. Looking for a job or recruiting?
New and expanded avenues for exploring, connecting, and career-development have been added this year. These will extend from informal interactions (over round-table meals or other mixing opportunities), to more structured encounters. All are designed to maximize opportunities for identifying prospective employers or employees. This will be combined with a still-greater depth and breadth of previous strategies for enhancing Career Development of ASPB members (lunches, workshops, resume review, and other).

5. Best networking yet: New opportunities for mingling and informal discussion have been added.
Time to connect is precious, so in addition to coffee breaks with other refreshments, there will be a welcoming coffee and brunch in a nearby park, rise-and-shine breakfast offerings during the meeting, on-site lunch spots for mingling and discussion (with pre-purchased meals or from concessions), poster sessions with fast rotations and enhanced refreshments, plus additional strategies for arranging shared-interest dinners.

6. Special amenities.

This year attendees get free passes for the Portland Light-Rail, free wireless, new mobile apps, plus budget-friendly, subsidized childcare (with a special, Welcome-Night Science Party for children).

7. Evening celebration on our last night!

There’ll be a live, outdoor band, great beverages, fine nibbles, and really outstanding camaraderie! We’ll be under the stars with a hillside view of the late-setting sun and nearby mountains. An adjacent lodge will provide alternate environments for interacting, especially in its 3-story, tree-filled atrium, with forestry encounters that are amusing and informative.

8. What a great place!

From the airy, glass-roofed conference center, to the town itself, and the scenic Northwest US beyond, the Portland experience will be a beautiful one.
The freshness of the area includes its fabulous flowers, fruits, vegetables, “foodie carts,” verdant parks, and abundant outdoor options for walking, talking, and adventuring. Free light-rail passes will open Portland to exploration of its cultural diversity, exquisite arts, phenomenal gardens, and beautiful river. The lakes and mountains nearby provide some of the most beautiful scenery in the US.

8½. Half-pint? Pub-crawl?

Don’t miss Portland’s famed micro-breweries and uniquely crafted beverages.

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Photo by Susan Cato

If you recognize what the following string of 16 digits represents, you are welcome to stop reading: 0000-0002-4669-3215.

If not, here’s a question: Wouldn’t it be cool if each scientist’s contributions to scholarship across all disciplines could be discovered, cited, and curated quickly and easily?


That is exactly what the Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCiD) is intended to achieve. ORCID, which has been issuing IDs for a little over a year, is an increasingly powerful validation registry for scientific authors. It is backed by some of the biggest names in information science and practice. These include CrossRef, the publisher/librarian/funder-supported outfit that brought us inter-journal reference linking well over a decade ago, and Thomson Reuters, home of the Impact Factor. For organizations like ASPB – both a publisher and a community-focused professional society – ORCiD is tremendously valuable.

From your perspective as a user/member/author, ORCiD affords the opportunity to ensure that your papers and presentations are tagged explicitly with a unique identifier that is yours only – a Digital Object Identifier for a scientist, if you will.

From ASPB’s perspective, we can use the same identifier to better connect your interactions across all organizational activities, as well as with your published content – whether as an author, a member, an annual meeting registrant, etc. These connections help us to better understand who you are, the breadth of activities you are involved in, where and what you have published, and the interests you have. This understanding will help us provide you with a better experience overall, by allowing us to support you with programs, content, and services based on your very individual needs.

To get started, we have built ORCiD fields into the manuscript submission systems for Plant Physiology and The Plant Cell, which will help us track and link your contributions to the literature. Moving forward, we plan to use ORCiDs to curate and aggregate your content from a variety of sources – and use it to personalize your online experience with us.

You can learn more about ORCiD on their website, and if you’re willing to take my word for it, I’d urge you to join the almost 400,000 other scholars who have already signed up. From my experience, it really does take as little as the advertised 30 seconds.

Now, I just have to get some papers and other materials connected to my profile on the ORCiD site…

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One of the most meaningful perks of my job as a faculty member in the Department of Plant and Microbial Biology at UC Berkeley is the opportunity to mentor students – both undergrads and grads. My job also gives me the privilege to share with students my passion for doing plant science research, and to introduce them to the exciting trajectories of possible careers in the plant science discipline. What better way, I thought, to get this latter idea across than through membership and participation in ASPB?

The Importance of Professional Development

In a recent post on Career Opportunities for Plant Scientists, Crispin Taylor emphasizes the need to raise awareness about the diverse career opportunities available to plant biologists, and the importance of ongoing professional development to ensure a thriving ecosystem for plant science now and in the future.  The best way to nurture careers, develop soft-skills, and open doors to new opportunities is through joining a community-based professional society like ASPB.

Most students have not thought, in their fledgling careers, about what a professional society can do for them.  Being exposed to the opportunities afforded by society membership can open doors to their future that they didn’t know existed. It will help them to put down strong “roots” from which their careers can grow.  As an ASPB member they will have:

  • Opportunities to participate, collaborate, and engage in communities of interest, around a variety of research areas and topics
  • Access to premier plant science publications, Plant Physiology, The Plant Cell and The Arabidopsis Book.
  • The prospect of being able to engage in meaningful K through gray education efforts in the plant sciences.
  • The capacity to make their voices heard on plant science issues in Washington D.C.
  • The opportunity to attend a mind-expanding annual meeting and listen to and meet the leaders in plant science research.

Given ASPB’s renewed focus on member services in, for example, its reinvented online presence (coming soon) that will cater to the needs and desired mechanisms of engagement and collaboration of younger members, there is no better time to Give Your Students Roots in a professional society.

Get students started on their journey to a successful plant science career today!

Simply fill out the forms and give them their first year of ASPB membership at a discount.

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How to Be a Hot Pick: Tips for Writing Abstracts

How to make sure your abstracts are a hot pickCommunicating about your research to raise awareness and to get noticed is a critical skill. To be sure your abstract is a hot pick for talks, it’s important to use the right approach. Here are some tips and resources that can help your abstract get chosen.

Consider Each Audience

Reviewers will select your work for oral presentation when they are interested enough to read your whole abstract. Program committees will give your abstract priority if key themes are evident in its title and contents. Conferees will attend your session when your abstract convinces them to devote 20 minutes listening to your presentation. This range of enthusiasm is not easily achieved and requires careful thought. So create a good abstract by answering YES to these questions:

Do you have a great title?

Many people read ONLY the title. If you have not caught their interest with the title, they will not read further.

  • Is your title a concentrated version of your abstract?
  • Does it embody the relevance and interest of your work in only a few words?
  • Is it concise yet not too catchy? Cleverness can be both a plus and a minus.

Is your research significance unmistakable?

Relevance is hard to overemphasize. Even people in top labs from your own area may not recognize the full impact of your findings. Other scientists outside your immediate area pose a still greater challenge. So to be selected, your abstract must give a full account of the relevance of the research.

  • Does your work contribute significantly to fundamental understandings in your area?
  • Are there applied implications; does your research span a spectrum from molecular to whole-plant or ecosystem levels?
  • Do any aspects of your work clearly delineate to multiple species?

Are you describing the science itself as fully as possible?

Do not skimp on the hypothesis, approach, results and discussion. These central aspects of the research are as important as fully explaining relevance. A good balance is essential.

  • Did you share enough of your logic for others to follow?
  • Does your abstract represent a complete story?

Additional Resources:

While you are thinking about preparing abstracts for upcoming meetings, why not submit an abstract to Plant Biology 2014?


This post was written and contributed by Dr. Karen Koch, a professor of Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology at the University of Florida and the ASPB Secretary and Program Committee Chair.

If you are interested in contributing a post to the ASPB Plant Science blog, please let us know.

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